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Stem cells: Living adult tissue transformed back into embryo state

Astron Lifesciences

http://astronlife.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/062fc-004_tile_zooboing-com_cells.jpg?w=320&h=320The living tissue inside an animal has been regressed back into an embryonic state for the first time, Spanish researchers say.

They believe it could lead to new ways of repairing the body, for example after a heart attack.

However, the study published in the journal Nature, showed the technique led to tumours forming in mice.

Stem cell experts said it was a “cool” study, but would need to be much more controlled before leading to therapies.

When an egg is first fertilised, it has the potential to develop into every tissue in the human body, from brain cells to skin.

That flexibility is lost as an embryo develops. However, transforming adult tissues back into an embryonic-like state may lead to treatments that can regenerate a weakened heart, or the light-sensing cells in the eye or even the brain after a stroke.

‘Thought impossible’

The transformation has been done in…

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Posted by on September 15, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Growing new organs

Dream Power

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Anthony Atala’s state-of-the-art lab grows human organs — from muscles to blood vessels to bladders, and more. At TEDMED, he shows footage of his bio-engineers working with some of its sci-fi gizmos, including an oven-like bioreactor (preheat to 98.6 F) and a machine that “prints” human tissue.

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Posted by on June 24, 2013 in Uncategorized

 

Chinese scientists turn human urine into brain cells

It's Interesting

NPGs_from_urine

 

Chinese researchers have developed a new technique for isolating kidney cells from urine and turning them into neural progenitors — –immature brain cells that can develop into various types of glial cells and neurons. Reprogramming cells has been done before, of course, but not with cells gleaned from urine and not via a method this direct. The technique could prove extremely helpful to those pursuing treatments for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

The innovation here is in the source and the method. We know that embryonic stem cells offer potential treatments for neurodegenerative disorders. And we know that we can turn adult human cells–that is, non-embryonic cells gathered from adult humans–into pluripotent cells (those that can become a different type of cell) by reprogramming them, usually with genetically engineered viruses that tamper with the cells’ genetic codes.

But embryonic stem cell treatments are fraught with ethical issues and…

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Posted by on December 12, 2012 in Uncategorized

 

Nice article on Wnt signalling

Intestinal homeostasis and stem cells are not affected when Paneth cells stop producing Wnt, but Wnt is required to maintain the stem cell niche in intestinal epithelial cultures, according to a mouse study in the December issue of Gastroenterology. These findings indicate that underlying mesenchymal cells provide a secondary physiological source of Wnt to intestinal stem cells.

Wnt signaling regulates many aspects of intestinal physiology, and also maintains stem cells. Paneth cells (which reside at the base of the crypt, interspersed with Lgr5+ stem cells) support the stem cells, producing important signaling factors. These include the Wnt ligands Wnt3, Wnt6, and Wnt9b; the Notch ligands Dll-1 and Dll-4; and EGF. However, it is not clear if Paneth cell production of all these factors is required to maintain the stem cell niche.

To examine the roles of Wnt production in the intestinal epithelia, Henner Farin et al. created mice…

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Posted by on December 4, 2012 in Uncategorized

 

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Histone variant macroH2A marks embryonic differentiation in vivo and acts as an epigenetic barrier to induced pluripotency | Stu’s Stem Cell Blog

The mechanisms of reprogramming are being slowly uncovered. Here’s an excellent post from Stu’s Stem Cell Blog:

J Cell Sci – Histone variant macroH2A marks embryonic differentiation in vivo and acts as an epigenetic barrier to induced pluripotency | Stu’s Stem Cell Blog

 
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Posted by on October 20, 2012 in Uncategorized

 

Worms teach about germline stem cells

To me, the stem cells within a germline are a perfect storm of fascination.  Stem cells are, of course, intriguing in their ability to self-renew and differentiate, and a germline is intriguing in its ability to generate gametes.  Add stem cells and germlines together, and you have amazing biology in front of you…and more biology […]

via Worms teach about germline stem cells.

 
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Posted by on October 17, 2012 in Uncategorized, World News

 

memoirs on a rainy day

The discovery that mature, adult cells can be reprogrammed back to an embryonic-like state has won this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. It was awarded to two pioneers of stem-cell research, John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka.

Read more @ SciTechDaily

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Posted by on October 11, 2012 in Uncategorized